The frictional resistance is a force that is generated when the underwater parts of the boat and the water around are in relative movement (the boat moves through the water, or, in other words, the water passes down the boat). Therefore, it is a hydrodynamic force, and as a resistance, it works in the opposite direction to the movement, trying to slow the boat down.
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The motion of a sailing yacht through water requires energy to overcome resistance. It is essential to know the mechanisms behind the generation of this force that works against the movement so that we can make the resistance of a new design match the project’s overall performance goals.
Surface waves are created by disturbance forces applied to a specific area. It can be either the wind, a surface vessel moving through the water, an earthquake, landslides, a splash, gravity (as it is the case for tides), or any combination of them. When studying ocean waves, we consider them to be the superimposition of single sinusoidal waves with different frequencies and amplitudes.