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Challenges in sailboat design

Using wind power and sails as the primary means of propulsion brings additional dimensions to the design of a sailboat compared to ship or powerboat design. The designer’s challenge is to balance the different parameters to achieve the best overall performance and characteristics, rather than optimize the boat to one operating situation.

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Wind triangle

The wind experienced by a fixed observer (true wind) is not the same wind an observer on a moving yacht will feel (apparent wind). The wind triangle helps us understand what the true and apparent winds are and how they are related.

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Introducing the hull

The hull provides a volume to house accommodation, machinery, supplies, and cargo. It has to be seaworthy enough for the routes the yacht will sail and provide the lowest possible resistance to forward movement. It has to resist the heeling forces generated by the wind's interaction with the sails and have a large resistance to sideways movement to reduce the sideways drift to leeward of the desired course. The hull determines most of the yachts' main attributes: stability, resistance, seaworthiness, maneuverability, and load-carrying capacity.

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What the hydrodynamic resistance is and why it matters

The motion of a sailing yacht through water requires energy to overcome resistance. It is essential to know the mechanisms behind the generation of this force that works against the movement so that we can make the resistance of a new design match the project's overall performance goals.

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